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Symbols and Units
 


A Surface area [m2] (meter2)

α
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) [K-1] (1 / kelvin)

C Capacitance (F) [A·
s / V]

dij
Piezo modulus (tensor components) [m/V] (meter/volt)

ds
Distance, thickness [m] (meter)

ε
Dielectric constant [A·s/V·m] (ampere · second / volt · meter)

E Electric field strength [V/m] (volt/meter)

f Operating frequency [Hz] (hertz = 1/second)

F Force [N] (newton)

f0
Unloaded resonant frequency [Hz] (hertz = 1/second)

g Acceleration due to gravity: 9.81 m/s2
(meter/second2)

i Current [A] (ampere)

kS
Stiffness of restraint (load) [N/m] (newton/meter)

kT
Stiffness of piezo actuator [N/m] (newton/meter)

L0
Length of non-energized actuator [m] (meter)

D
L Change in length (displacement) [m] (meter)

D
L0 Nominal displacement with zero applied force, [m] (meter)

D
Lt=0.1 Displacement at time t = 0.1 sec after voltage change, [m] (meter)

m Mass [kg] (kilogram)

P Power [W] (watt)

Q Charge [C] (coulomb = ampere X
second)

S Strain [D
L/L] (dimensionless)

t Time [s] (second)

U voltage [V] (volt)

Up-p
Peak-to-peak voltage [V] (volt)


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